Friday, April 26, 2013

A Brief History of 19th Century Film by Mike Thomas

-Note that some of the images displayed were animated GIF's and Quicktime videos used during the presentation.

- Not film but inventions that led to the creation of film.

-Camera Obscuras have been around since the times of Ancient Greece and have been used by artists for tracing.
-The Magic Lantern was invented Athanasius Kircher in Rome during the 17th Century.
-It operated by projecting a transparent image on the lens onto a screen using an internal light source (like a candle).

-Other names it was given were Fantascope and Spindle Viewer.
-Created by Belgian inventor, Joseph Plateau in 1832).
-Was a flat disk with images on the outer ring and a series of peepholes near the center.
-Operation was standing in front of a mirror and spinning the wheel while looking through the peepholes.
-One on display is created by Eadweard Muybridge.
-When spun, it gave the illusion on motion.

-Louis-Jacques-Mande Daguerre invents the Daguerreotype in 1839.
-Able to capture images on metal plates but takes a long time.
-Celluloid film is invented in 1870 by John Wesley Hyatt and is able to capture images more instantly.

-Thomas A. Edison creates the Incandescent Light Bulb in the late 1870’s.
-Becomes a major player (along with his assistant William K.L. Dickson) in the development of early American cinema.

1830 – 1904
British inventor and photographer.
Became well known for his photographic studies of motion (particularly that of humans and animals).

-Created in 1878 as part of a bet in support of former Californian governor, Leland Stanford, that all the feet of a horse can be off the ground in gallop.
-Horse’s name was Sallie Gardner.
-It was captured by having multiple cameras side-by-side on the race track and being photographed by a tripwire that the horse would hit when galloping down the track.

-Invented in 1879.
-Considered to be the first movie projector.
-Discs similar to the Phenakistiscope were placed in front of the projector and rotated displaying the images in motion on screen.
-Became the source of inspiration of Edison and Dickson’s Kinetoscope.

-Filmed by Louis Le Prince in 1888.
-Used a custom-made camera/projector.
-Never shown to the public until long after his disappearance in 1890.
-Oldest surviving celluloid film.

-Dickson was the one with the ideas while Edison provided the research and work space.
-Their goal was to create a machine for capturing movement on film and another machine to view it.

-Developed between 1889 and 1892.
-Capture device (camera) was called the Kinetograph.
-Used celluloid film.
-Viewing device was called Kinetoscope.
-First public displaying in 1891.

-This one is from San Francisco from the the mid-1890’s.
-Term “motion picture” starts being used.

-First motion picture displayed to the public.

-First film to have actors playing roles (those are not real blacksmiths).

-First motion picture to be copyrighted (now a public domain piece).

-First woman to appear in a motion picture in the US.
-Earliest case of film censorship (sometimes was banned from being displayed for being “too scandalous”).

Tuesday, April 23, 2013

Typewritten, History of the typewriter

1714 Henry Mil obtained a patent in Britain for a machine that appears to be similar to a typewriter
            - “An artificial machine or method for impressing or transcribing of letters     singly or progressively one after another”

1760 Adam Albert, Count von Neipperg an Austrian general created a letter-copying machine

1808 Italian Pellegrino Turri invented a typewriter for his blind friend Countess Carolina Fantoni da Frivizzano, but it is not known what it looked like. He also invented carbon paper for use by his machine, it served as ink.
            -if interested there’s books, 1973 the writing machine by Michael Adler and             Carey Wallace’s 2010 novel the blind Contessa’s new machine based on Turri       and the countess’ relationship

1829 American,[from Michigan] William Austen Burt creates and presents “The Typographer” which is dubbed like many other early machines as ‘the first typewriter’ but it is “the first writing mechanism whose invention was documented (science museum of London) “ Even in the hands of the inventor his machine is slower than handwriting. He never found a buyer for his patent so his machine never took off.++++add more

1843-1845 Charles Turber develops multiple patents for machines to aid the blind the “patent printer” in ‘43 and the Chirographer or “Mechanical Chirographer”
 in ‘45. Chirography coming from Greek derived through Latin describing the study of penmanship and handwriting.

1855 Italian Giuseppe Ravizza creates a prototype typewriter called Cembalo scrivano o macchina da scrivere a tasti which translates to the, “Scribe Harpsichord or machine for writing with keys “

1861 Father Francisco João de Azevedo, a Brazilian priest, made his own typewriter from basic materials and tools such as wood and knives. He is celebrated by the Brazilian people as being the first real inventor of the typewriter.

1864-1867 Peter Mitterhofer, a carpenter from South Tryol (a former part of Austria) develops several models and a fully functioning prototype typewriter in 1867

1865 -John Pratt builds the Pterotype, which appears in a Scientific American article
            -Rev. Rasmus Malling-Hansen of Denmark invents the ‘Hansen Writing Ball’, which goes into commercial production in 1870. It has high success in Europe and is a candidate for the ‘first electric typewriter’ because of it uses solenoid escapement to return the carriage on some of its models. Hansen continued to develop his model from 1870-80. Only the last models worked without electricity, this was the “tall model”  Hansen won first prize for his invention in both world exhibitions in Vienna (1873) and Paris (1878) . The machine looks rather like a pincushion. Nietzsche’s mother and sister once gave him a writing ball for Christmas. He hated it.

At this point models become more familiar looking

1867-68 Christopher Latham Sholes a printer and politician patents the typewriter with Samuel Soule and Carlos Glidden. The Sholes & Glidden Typewriter began production in 1873-74, it typed in only capital letters and introduces the QWERTY keyboard. Which is designed to separated pairs of typebars so they do not clash and get stuck when printing. The S&G was a decorative machine boasting painted flower decals, it looked a bit like a sewing machine because of this, however it was manufactured by the sewing machine department of the Remington Arms Company, to which the pair had sold their patent for $12,000. The typebars struck upward so the typist could not see what they had typed
-“the original only wrote in capital letters and its structure prevented the operator from seeing the line that she was writing” “The machine is very crude, but there is an idea that will revolutionize the business. We must not let the account get away”-Henry Benedict director at the Remington Company

The QWERTY was not the most successful layout but because of the success of the S&G model other typewriter manufacturers slowly adopted it.
Dr. August Dovark invented what is known as the Dovark keyboard that is far more efficient. It uses less finger motion to increase the typing rate and reduce errors.

1880 the Caligraph of 1880 was the second typewriter to appear in the American market, Has a “full” keyboard- separate keys for both lower and uppercase letters.

1884 Universal Hammonds are introduced that do not have ad traditional style keyboard, has a two-row curved ‘idea’ keyboard on a c-shaped piece of vulcanized rubber. The shuttle can be exchanged for a different typeface. It has no platen or typebars. Paper is hit against the shuttle by a hammer. This machine had a solid base of loyal customers up until the word processing era. It had a name change though to Varityper when it was electrificated.

Visible machines

1891-96 Williams and Oliver were early visible machines

1891 The Daughery Visible was the first frontstroke typewriter to go into production. The typebars hit the platen in the front.

1895 the typewriter began to gain power/ popularity. The Underwood #5 was produced by the millions.

1920s basically all typewriters are lookalikes with frontstroke, QWERTY, typebars printing through a ribbon using the shift key, four banks of typebars. Though a few strays did manage to survive.
1980s  typewriters were replaced, for efficiency, by word processors on personal computers