Friday, April 26, 2013

A Brief History of 19th Century Film by Mike Thomas

-Note that some of the images displayed were animated GIF's and Quicktime videos used during the presentation.

- Not film but inventions that led to the creation of film.


-Camera Obscuras have been around since the times of Ancient Greece and have been used by artists for tracing.
-The Magic Lantern was invented Athanasius Kircher in Rome during the 17th Century.
-It operated by projecting a transparent image on the lens onto a screen using an internal light source (like a candle).


-Other names it was given were Fantascope and Spindle Viewer.
-Created by Belgian inventor, Joseph Plateau in 1832).
-Was a flat disk with images on the outer ring and a series of peepholes near the center.
-Operation was standing in front of a mirror and spinning the wheel while looking through the peepholes.
-One on display is created by Eadweard Muybridge.
-When spun, it gave the illusion on motion.


-Louis-Jacques-Mande Daguerre invents the Daguerreotype in 1839.
-Able to capture images on metal plates but takes a long time.
-Celluloid film is invented in 1870 by John Wesley Hyatt and is able to capture images more instantly.


-Thomas A. Edison creates the Incandescent Light Bulb in the late 1870’s.
-Becomes a major player (along with his assistant William K.L. Dickson) in the development of early American cinema.



1830 – 1904
British inventor and photographer.
Became well known for his photographic studies of motion (particularly that of humans and animals).


-Created in 1878 as part of a bet in support of former Californian governor, Leland Stanford, that all the feet of a horse can be off the ground in gallop.
-Horse’s name was Sallie Gardner.
-It was captured by having multiple cameras side-by-side on the race track and being photographed by a tripwire that the horse would hit when galloping down the track.


-Invented in 1879.
-Considered to be the first movie projector.
-Discs similar to the Phenakistiscope were placed in front of the projector and rotated displaying the images in motion on screen.
-Became the source of inspiration of Edison and Dickson’s Kinetoscope.


-Filmed by Louis Le Prince in 1888.
-Used a custom-made camera/projector.
-Never shown to the public until long after his disappearance in 1890.
-Oldest surviving celluloid film.



-Dickson was the one with the ideas while Edison provided the research and work space.
-Their goal was to create a machine for capturing movement on film and another machine to view it.


-Developed between 1889 and 1892.
-Capture device (camera) was called the Kinetograph.
-Used celluloid film.
-Viewing device was called Kinetoscope.
-First public displaying in 1891.


-This one is from San Francisco from the the mid-1890’s.
-Term “motion picture” starts being used.



-First motion picture displayed to the public.


-First film to have actors playing roles (those are not real blacksmiths).


-First motion picture to be copyrighted (now a public domain piece).


-First woman to appear in a motion picture in the US.
-Earliest case of film censorship (sometimes was banned from being displayed for being “too scandalous”).



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